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GRE雙語閱讀熱門背景素材詳解

來源:朗閣

摘要:提升閱讀速度對于GRE考試取得是非常重要的,下面我們就為大家帶來這方面的解析,希望可以幫助到各位。

提升閱讀速度對于GRE考試取得是非常重要的,下面我們就為大家帶來這方面的解析,希望可以幫助到各位。

  Open-access scientific publishing is gaining ground.AT THE beginning of April, Research Councils UK, a conduit through which the government transmits taxpayers' money to academic researchers, changed the rules on how the results of studies it pays for are made public.From now on they will have to be published in journals that make them available free—preferably immediately, but certainly within a year.In February the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy told federal agencies to make similar plans.

  科學出版的開放存取已逐漸被人們所接受.四月初,英國研究理事會—一個由政府向學術研究者提供資金機構-改變了它的一項規則:即該機構提供資助的一些研究成果是否可以自由出版。從今后,這些成果將必須在期刊上自由,免費發表—最好是結果出來后立即出版,但是出版時間最遲不能超過一年。今年二月,白宮科學和技術政策辦公室也要求聯邦機構做出與之相類似的計劃。

  A week before that, a bill which would require free access to government-financed research after six months had begun to wend its way through Congress.The European Union is moving in the same direction.So are charities.And SCOAP3, a consortium of particle-physics laboratories, libraries and funding agencies, is pressing all 12 of the field's leading journals to make the 7,000 articles they publish each year free to read.For scientific publishers, it seems, the party may soon be over.

  在此前一周,國會也通過了一項法案—即政府資助研究產生成果六個月后,可以自由出版,雖然投票通過的過程有些曲折。同時,歐盟也正在同樣方向的指導下做著類似的工作。慈善機構同樣如此。而且,一個由眾多粒子物理實驗室,圖書館和資助機構組成的聯合體-SCOAP3已經向該領域的12個先鋒期刊提出如下要求:即他們每年出版的7,000篇文章都能免費閱讀。對科學出版社們來說,這似乎預示著獨享的快樂聚會可能就快結束了。

  It has, they would have to admit, been a good bash.The current enterprise—selling the results of other people's work, submitted free of charge and vetted for nothing by third parties in a process called peer review, has been immensely profitable.Elsevier, a Dutch firm that is the world's biggest journal publisher, had a margin last year of 38% on revenues of 2.1 billion.Springer, a German firm that is the second-biggest journal publisher, made 36% on sales of 875m in 2011.

  不過,他們將不得不承認,這是一個很好的嘗試,F在的企業—銷售他人的工作成果,不要承認任何費用,而且不要接受被稱為同行檢查的第三方審查,已經是極有利潤可圖了。荷蘭的愛思唯爾是全球最大的雜志出版商,去年在這個方面的利潤達到了總收入的38%。而第二大出版商—德國的施普林格,就其最近一年—2011年可查的數據來看,出版研究成果的收入達到了當年銷售收入—8.75億歐元的36%。

  Such firms are now, though, faced with competitors set up explicitly to cover only their costs.Some rely on charity, but many have a proper business model: academics pay a fee to be published.So, on the principle of if you can't beat 'em, join 'em, commercial publishers, too, are setting up open-access subsidiaries.Open for business.The biggest is BioMed Central, part of Springer.It was founded in 2000 and in February it published its 150,000th paper and also launched its 250th periodical, catchily entitled theJournal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases.

  但是,現在這些公司也面臨著僅為賺取投資成本而起家的競爭對手的挑戰。有些企業倚重的卻是慈善出版物,但是,它們大多都有一個合適的商業模式:學者都要支付一定的費用才能出版他們的研究成果。因此,本著如果你不能打敗他們,那就加入他們的原則,商業出版社也開始設立可以開放存取的子公司。開業了.影響最大的是生物醫學中心,它隸屬于斯林普格,創建于2000年。今年二月,它出版了它的十五萬篇文章,也出版了它的第250期期刊,它的題目很吸引人—有毒動物,及包含熱帶疾病的毒素。

  Days later Nature Publishing Group, which owns Nature and 81 other journals, and which itself belongs to the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, another German firm, bought a majority stake in Frontiers, a Swiss open-access platform with 30 titles in 14 scientific fields.In combination, NPG and Frontiers publish 46 open-access journals, and 7,300 free papers a year.In the past year Elsevier has more than doubled the number of open-access journals it publishes, to 39.And even in those that usually charge readers, paying a publication fee makes a paper available free immediately.

  幾天以后,擁有自然雜志和其它81種雜志的自然出版-它本身隸屬于另一家德國公司:格奧爾格-馮-霍爾茨布林克出版,購買了前鋒—一家擁有14個科研領域30種期刊的瑞士開放存取平臺—的多數股權。聯姻后,自然和前鋒每年能夠出版46個開放存取期刊,及7,300篇文章。去年,艾思維爾把它出版的開放存取期刊的數量增加了一倍以上,達到了39個。甚至那些通常收費的出版商,在支付出版費用后,也能夠立刻免費讀到這些文章。

  Outsell, a Californian consultancy, estimates that open-access journals generated 172m in 2012.That was just 2.8% of the total revenue journals brought their publishers, but it was up by 34% from 2011 and is expected to reach 336m in 2015. The number of open-access papers is forecast to grow from 194,000 to 352,000 in the same period.Open-access publishers are also looking at new ways of doing business.

  據一家加州咨詢公司—奧特舒爾估計,去年開放存取雜志產生了1.72億美元的收入。而這僅僅占了出版商全部雜志收入的2.8%,但是相比于2011年,已經增加了34%,估計到2015年,全部開放存取雜志的收入會達到3.36億美元。屆時,開放存取文章的數量將會從19.4萬篇增加到35.2萬篇。開放存取出版商也在探索這方面的新方式。

  Frontiers, for example, does not try to judge a paper's significance during peer review, only its accuracy—an approach also adopted by the Public Library of Science, a non-commercial organisation based in San Francisco that was one of the pioneers of open-access publishing. It thus accepts 80-90% of submissions.Instead, a Frontiers paper's merit is gauged after publication, using measures like the number of downloads.Frontiers also doubles as a social network for researchers to share news, job offers and information about conferences and events.

  比如,前鋒并不注重一篇文章在同行眼光中的重要性,而只專注于它的準確性—這也是公共科學圖書館所采取的方法,因此,前鋒獲得了所提交研究論文中80-90%的出版權。相反,前鋒文章的一個優點是,在出版后,通過類似下載數量的衡量方式來對文章進行評判。作為一個為研究者提供新聞,工作計劃和有關會議和事件信息分享的社交網站,前鋒雜志的下載量也增加了一倍。

  This network currently has around 70,000 members.PeerJ, founded last year, makes an even more dramatic departure from tradition.Rather than being charged publication fees, authors pay a one-off membership fee, which ranges from 99 to 298, depending on how many papers they want to publish each year.All co-authors must be members. The firm also deals neatly with the question of peer review. Members must review at least one paper a year.

  這個網站現在已經有約七萬左右的會員。而去年創建的皮爾杰則開發了一個更加異于傳統的運作模式。文章的作者并不需要支付出版費用,而只要支付一次性會員費用,從99美元到298美元不等,這取決于每年他們打算出版的文章數量。所有的合作者必須都是會員。這家公司也很好地處理了同行評審的問題。它規定,會員每年必須評審一篇文章。

  Non-commercial open-access publishers, though, are fighting back.The Wellcome Trust, the Max Planck Society and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute have set up eLife, a peer-reviewed journal that does not charge publication fees.And in January Jean-Pierre Demailly, of the University of Grenoble, in France, and a handful of fellow mathematicians launched the Episciences Project.This aims to show that researchers themselves can turn out refereed papers cheaply, bypassing traditional purveyors.

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